The Development of Urban Two-Spirit Communities and the Role of American Indian Poets Paula Gunn Allen and Janice Gould

This thesis seeks to examine the factors that contributed to the development of Two-Spirit (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other gender/sexuality variant American Indians) communities in urban areas. Secondly, it explores how these communities are reflected in the poetry of American Indian women Paula Gunn Allen and Janice Gould. This paper investigates these questions within the context of two theories on community development and organization, one by Saul Alinsky and the other by Stephen Cornell. Next it discusses gender and sexuality variance in American Indian tribal societies as reflected in studies conducted during the 1910s through the 1950s. Thirdly, it examines the development of community and constituency of the international Two-Spirit community within the framework of Alinsky and Cornell's theories. Lastly, it will look at the role of contemporary American Indian poets, Paula Gunn Allen and Janice Gould, in the shaping and actualization of urban Two-Spirit communities.


Brandi Ishcomer


Luci Tapahonso






ATT 1414230

UA Library: 

E9791 2003 067
College of Social and Behavioral Sciences