Extermination Versus Reservation: Implications of Civilian Violence Against the Apache in the Massacre at Little Running Water (1871)

This thesis examines the April 30, 1871 massacre of 118 Arivaipa and Pinal Apaches by a contingent of Anglos, Mexicans and Tohono O'odham Indians near Camp Grant in the Arizona Territory. Specifically, this study analyzes the economic and political catalysts driving cultural interaction and violence in the Territory in general and the Camp Grant Massacre in particular. It asserts that the attack bore as its root motivation the fundamental mentality of colonialism: the need to secure territorial and cultural dominance over indigenous obstacles to capitalistic "progress." This thesis also includes a definitive examination of federal Indian policy during the post-Civil War period. Finally, it attempts to show how the social organization and subsistence lifestyle of the Western Apache governed their adjustment to the ever-changing circumstances of the encroachment of the Anglo frontier in the years leading up to 1871.


Ian Record


Tom Holm





Arizona State Museum: 

M9791 R370
College of Social and Behavioral Sciences