Treaty 8 and Oral History

This thesis examines archival documentation regarding the Treaty negotiations that occurred at Willow Point in what is now northern Alberta, Canada. It notes that despite assumptions to the contrary, the written texts detailing these negotiations are rife with inaccuracies and inconsistencies. Additionally, reading the written text of Treaty 8 as a basis for understanding the nature of the Treaty relationship is fundamentally flawed. Understanding indigenous philosophical and theological concepts of the local indigenous population fundamentally alters the prism through which the treaty should be evaluated. Seen from the perspective of the local indigenous population, Treaty 8 should be seen as an agreement which would protect their religious and spiritual freedom. The second chapter discusses why Anglo-American universities are so hesitant to recognize alternative dialogue frameworks. Use of First Nations oral history is central to understanding their history and place in Canadian society.


Raymond Jason Cardinal


Tom Holm





Arizona State Museum: 

M9791 C346t
College of Social and Behavioral Sciences